The Cold War and Its End

The Cold War (1946-1991)

The cold war started just after World War II in 1946, between United States of America (USA) and the Soviet Union (USSR). This war was given the name the “Cold War” because it was not a conventional war. It was a geopolitical, ideological, scientific, and economic struggle to gain supremacy between two superpowers, the USA and the USSR. Harry Turman was the First American president who initiated the cold war. His government drafted the Truman Doctrine under which monetary and military support was extended to countries threatened by the spread communism. During the cold war, the world was divided into three groups:

  1. The United States headed the western group which included countries with democratic political systems.
  2. The Soviet Union led the Eastern group that included other communist countries.
  3. The non-aligned group included countries that did not want to be allied to either the west or the east group

سرد جنگ 1946 میں دوسری جنگ عظیم کے بعد شروع ہوئی ، ریاستہائے متحدہ امریکہ (USA) اور سوویت یونین (USSR) کے درمیان۔ اس جنگ کو “سرد جنگ” کا نام دیا گیا کیونکہ یہ روایتی جنگ نہیں تھی۔ یہ دو سپر پاورز ، امریکہ اور یو ایس ایس آر کے درمیان بالادستی حاصل کرنے کے لیے ایک جیو پولیٹیکل ، نظریاتی ، سائنسی اور معاشی جدوجہد تھی۔ ہیری ٹورمن پہلے امریکی صدر تھے جنہوں نے سرد جنگ کا آغاز کیا۔ ان کی حکومت نے ٹرومین نظریے کا مسودہ تیار کیا جس کے تحت مالی اور عسکری مدد کو ان ممالک تک بڑھایا گیا جنہیں کمیونزم کے پھیلاؤ سے خطرہ تھا۔ سرد جنگ کے دوران ، دنیا کو تین گروہوں میں تقسیم کیا گیا تھا:

امریکہ نے مغربی گروپ کی سربراہی کی جس میں جمہوری سیاسی نظام والے ممالک شامل تھے۔
سوویت یونین نے مشرقی گروپ کی قیادت کی جس میں دیگر کمیونسٹ ممالک شامل تھے۔
غیر وابستہ گروپ میں وہ ممالک شامل تھے جو مغرب یا مشرقی گروہ کے ساتھ اتحاد نہیں کرنا چاہتے تھے۔

Consequences of the Cold War

The cold war had many effects on the world:

  1. Communist and Capitalist ideologies were promoted. There were many violent proxy wars between the USA and USSR who both tried to install capitalist and communist regimes respectively in newly decolonized countries around the world.
  2. There was a great increase in technologies innovation during Cold War.
  3. Advanced nuclear and space exploration capabilities were explored and developed in both counties.

The End of the Cold War

In the late 80s and early 90s, some historical events led to the end of the infamous Cold War. Many Communist countries in Europe rebelled against their governments for independence. Between 1989 and 1990, the Berlin Wall was demolished and the borders opened between East and West Germany. The communist regimes were removed from power in Eastern Europe. In 1991 too broke up into many small independent republics.

Common Terms used during the Cold War

Capitalism is an economic and political system in which a country’s trade and industry are controlled by private owners for profit, rather than by the state.

Communism is a social and political way of governance in which all assets are owned by the government and wealth is distributed according to ability and need

Dictatorship: is way of government are a social situation where there is one head of state (usually a military leader) who makes all decisions without consulting the executive, judicial and legislative decisions.

author

MQS

This is Qadir from PK, having master degree in Pol Science, Bachelor of Education, Computer Diploma Senior Teacher by Profession

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